Present study mainly deals with the review of in vitro investigation for assessing the wear action of different dental materials. With in vitro testing, the researcher gets more control over the experimental variables leading to more accurate results. Whereas, other methods have limited contribution towards the tribological study of dental materials. Therefore, in vitro method was developed for studying the wear mechanisms. The wear testing devices like pin-on-disc or artificial mouth were used in the study of in vitro. By selecting different test parameters like load, speed, temperature and use of artificial saliva, an artificial oral environment can be created on a pin-on-disc tribometer. The filler particle percentage is an essential parameter for studying the tribological and mechanical characteristics of dental composite materials. © 2020, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.