Background: Melatonin is a hormone which is produced from pineal gland in human and is said to have various impacts in human body like controlling sleep wake cycle, regulating the immune and cardiovascular system and regulating the peripheral organ functioning to name a few. Researchers have reported that the melatonin levels correlates with cancer risks. Objective: In this review article, focus has been given to the therapeutic applications and impact of melatonin hormone in human behavior and physiologic activities. Through this article we aim in compiling the scattered information regarding melatonin and its various aspects of importance in human system. Methods: We made an analysis of existing hypothesis and studies published on melatonin and circadian rhythm, factors effecting Melatonin secretions in body, sleep disturbances and cancer risks and melatonin therapy in cancer patients. Results: Melatonin’s role as an endogenous synchronizer, growing evidence suggests its anti-oxidative activity as well as its having a role in modulating immune responses. Fluctuating melatonin levels can be boosted by ingesting products containing melatonin. A large portion of the examinations detailed by the researchers clearly conclude that keeping up an impeccable sleep-wake cycle and having a healthy diet is extremely important to keep up the regular melatonin levels and in order to stay fit. Conclusions: Melatonin is considered as a critical hormone that controls and regulates many functions in our body. Melatonin production is emphatically related to the night time duration. Its most absolute biological role is to convey information to the body about day length for a variety of physiologic functions. In addition to melatonin’s role as an endogenous synchronizer, growing evidence suggests its anti-oxidative activity as well as its having a role in modulating immune responses. At present, a growing interest is focused on the validity of the anti-tumor mechanisms of melatonin. © 2018, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.