Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are a subject of global interest in research community due to their diverse applications in various fields of science. The stabilization of these metal NPs is of great concern in order to avoid their agglomerization during their applications. There is a huge pool of cations and anions available for the selection of ionic liquids (ILs) as stabilizers for the synthesis of metal NPs. ILs are known for their tunable nature allowing the fine tuning of NPs size and solubility by varying the substitutions on the heteroatom as well as the counter anions. However, there has been a debate over the stability of metal NPs stabilized by ILs over a long period of time and also upon their recycling and reuse in organocatalytic reactions. ILs covalently attached to solid supports (SILLPs) have given a new dimension for the stabilization of metal NPs as well as their separation, recovery, and reuse in organocatalytic reactions. Poly(ILs) (PILs) or polyelectrolytes have created a significant revolution in the polymer science owing to their characteristic properties of polymers as well as ILs. This dual behavior of PILs has facilitated the stabilization of PIL-stabilized metal NPs over a long period of time with negligible or no change in particle size, stability, and size distribution upon recycling in catalysis. This review provides an insight into the different types of imidazolium-based ILs, supported ILs, and PILs used so far for the stabilization of metal NPs and their applications as a function of their cations and counter anions. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.