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A systemic approach to explore the mechanisms of drug resistance and altered signaling cascades in extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
S. Udhaya Kumar, A. Saleem, D. Thirumal Kumar, V. Anu Preethi, S. Younes, H. Zayed, I.A. Tayubi,
Published in Academic Press Inc.
Background and aim: The persistence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) continue to pose a significant challenge to the treatment and control of tuberculosis infections worldwide. XDR-MTB strains exhibit resistance against first-line anti-TB drugs, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectable drugs. The mechanisms of drug resistance of MTB remains poorly understood. Our study aims at identifying the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated gene networks, and signaling cascades involved in rendering this pathogen resistant to multiple drugs, namely, isoniazid, rifampicin, and capreomycin. Methods: We used the microarray dataset GSE53843. The GEO2R tool was used to prioritize the most significant DEGs (top 250) of each drug exposure sample between XDR strains and non-resistant strains. The validation of the 250 DEGs was performed using volcano plots. Protein-protein interaction networks of the DEGs were created using STRING and Cytoscape tools, which helped decipher the relationship between these genes. The significant DEGs were functionally annotated using DAVID and ClueGO. The concomitant biological processes (BP) and molecular functions (MF) were represented as dot plots. Results and conclusion: We identified relevant molecular pathways and biological processes, such as cell wall biogenesis, lipid metabolic process, ion transport, phosphopantetheine binding, and triglyceride lipase activity. These processes indicated the involvement of multiple interconnected mechanisms in drug resistance. Our study highlighted the impact of cell wall permeability, with the dysregulation of the mur family of proteins, as essential factors in the inference of resistance. Additionally, upregulation of genes responsible for ion transport such as ctpF, arsC, and nark3, emphasizes the importance of transport channels and efflux pumps in potentially driving out stress-inducing compounds. This study investigated the upregulation of the Lip family of proteins, which play a crucial role in triglyceride lipase activity. Thereby illuminating the potential role of drug-induced dormancy and subsequent resistance in the mycobacterial strains. Multiple mechanisms such as carboxylic acid metabolic process, NAD biosynthetic process, triglyceride lipase activity, phosphopantetheine binding, organic acid biosynthetic process, and growth of symbiont in host cell were observed to partake in resistance of XDR-MTB. This study ultimately provides a platform for important mapping targets for potential therapeutics against XDR-MTB. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.
About the journal
JournalAdvances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.