Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer with established antimicrobial properties against specific microorganisms. The present study demonstrates its antibacterial activity against 48 isolates of Vibrio species from prawn larval rearing systems. The antibacterial activity had a positive correlation with the concentration of chitosan. This work opens up avenues for using chitosan as a prophylactic biopolymer for protecting prawn larvae from vibriosis. © Inter-Research 2005.