One hundred and fifteen cases [Down Syndrome (DS) n = 75, Multiple Congenital Anomalies (MCA) n = 15 and Aplastic Anaemia (AA) n = 25], with respect to their nature of predisposition to cancer, were selected for clinical, cytogenetic and cyto-molecular studies to understand the severity of genomic instability according to the nature of the different diseases. Cytogenetic studies included chromosomal aberration (CA) assays and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assays. In DS, MCA and AA, average frequencies of nuclear anomalies (NA) were 0.015 ± 0.0006, 0.021 ± 0.00123, 0.031 ± 0.00098, respectively and CA were 0.107 ± 0.003, 0.105 ± 0.008, 0.158 ± 0.006, respectively per metaphase. The extent of genomic instability in patients analysed by CBMN-Cyt assays and CA assays was statistically significant in all groups. Comparatively decreased cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) observed in AA patients of 1.59 ± 0.05, support the assumption that decreased levels of CBPI indicate increased genomic damage. Furthermore, we performed peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridisation (PNA FISH) analysis to understand the mechanisms behind genomic instability and telomere dysfunction. PNA FISH showed increased frequencies of telomere signal free ends (0.98 ± 0.13) in individuals with higher genomic instability. Therefore, the results demonstrate that increased chromosomal instability along with higher telomere attrition or loss may initiate gross DNA damage and leads to chromosomal instability, which is an important mechanism for triggering genomic instability - an important hallmark of cancer cells.
|Journal||Data powered by TypesetMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis|
|Publisher||Data powered by TypesetElsevier BV|