In recent years, there is a growing interest in studying the dielectric behavior of biopolymer composites due to their potential application as a dielectric material in various electronic devices such as microchips, transformers, and circuit boards. Conducting electroactive polymer composites have also been investigated for various potential applications which include biological, biomedical, flexible electrodes, display devices, biosensors, and cells for tissue engineering. In this chapter, the preparation and dielectric behavior of various biopolymer composites is presented. These biopolymer composites generally consist of nanoscale metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide (GO), etc., dispersed into the polymer matrix. The physical and chemical properties of these fillers and their interactions with polymers have a significant effect on the microstructure and the final properties of nanocomposites. The biopolymer composites with excellent dielectric properties show great promise as an energy storage dielectric layer in high-performance capacitor applications such as embedded capacitors. This chapter highlights some of the examples of such biopolymer composites; their processing and dielectric behavior will be discussed in detail. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.