Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe, review, classify and analyze the current challenges in three-dimensional printing processes for combined electrochemical and microfluidic fabrication areas, which include printing devices and sensors in specified areas. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the literature focusing on existing challenges is carried out. Focused toward sensors and devices in electrochemical and microfluidic areas, the challenges are oriented for a discussion exploring the suitability of printing varied geometries in an accurate manner. Classifications on challenges are based on four key categories such as process, material, size and application as the printer designs are mostly based on these parameters. Findings: A key three-dimensional printing process methodologies have their unique advantages compared to conventional printing methods, still having the challenges to be addressed, in terms of parameters such as cost, performance, speed, quality, accuracy and resolution. Three-dimensional printing is yet to be applied for consumer usable products, which will boost the manufacturing sector. To be specific, the resolution of printing in desktop printers needs improvement. Printing scientific products are halted with prototyping stages. Challenges in three-dimensional printing sensors and devices have to be addressed by forming integrated processes. Research limitations/implications: The research is underway to define an integrated process-based on three-dimensional Printing. The detailed technical details are not shared for scientific output. The literature is focused to define the challenges. Practical implications: The research can provide ideas to business on innovative designs. Research studies have scope for improvement ideas. Social implications: Review is focused on to have an integrated three-dimensional printer combining processes. This is a cost-oriented approach saving much of space reducing complexity. Originality/value: To date, no other publication reviews the varied three-dimensional printing challenges by classifying according to process, material, size and application aspects. Study on resolution based data is performed and analyzed for improvements. Addressing the challenges will be the solution to identify an integrated process methodology with a cost-effective approach for printing macro/micro/nano objects and devices. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.