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Dysregulation of Signaling Pathways Due to Differentially Expressed Genes From the B-Cell Transcriptomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients – A Bioinformatics Approach
S. Udhaya Kumar, D. Thirumal Kumar, , , S. Younes, N. Younes, M. Sidenna, H. Zayed
Published in Frontiers Media S.A.
Volume: 8
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is clinically complex and has increased production of autoantibodies. Via emerging technologies, researchers have identified genetic variants, expression profiling of genes, animal models, and epigenetic findings that have paved the way for a better understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of SLE. Our current study aimed to illustrate the essential genes and molecular pathways that are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. This study incorporates the gene expression profiling data of the microarray dataset GSE30153 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the B-cell transcriptomes of SLE patients and healthy controls were screened using the GEO2R web tool. The identified DEGs were subjected to STRING analysis and Cytoscape to explore the protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks between them. The MCODE (Molecular Complex Detection) plugin of Cytoscape was used to screen the cluster subnetworks that are highly interlinked between the DEGs. Subsequently, the clustered DEGs were subjected to functional annotation with ClueGO/CluePedia to identify the significant pathways that were enriched. For integrative analysis, we used GeneGo MetacoreTM, a Cortellis Solution software, to exhibit the Gene Ontology (GO) and enriched pathways between the datasets. Our study identified 4 upregulated and 13 downregulated genes. Analysis of GO and functional enrichment using ClueGO revealed the pathways that were statistically significant, including pathways involving T-cell costimulation, lymphocyte costimulation, negative regulation of vascular permeability, and B-cell receptor signaling. The DEGs were mainly enriched in metabolic networks such as the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate pathway and the carnitine pathway. Additionally, potentially enriched pathways, such as the signaling pathways induced by oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), chemotaxis and lysophosphatidic acid signaling induced via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the androgen receptor activation pathway, were identified from the DEGs that were mainly associated with the immune system. Four genes (EGR1, CD38, CAV1, and AKT1) were identified to be strongly associated with SLE. Our integrative analysis using a multitude of bioinformatics tools might promote an understanding of the dysregulated pathways that are associated with SLE development and progression. The four DEGs in SLE patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of SLE and might serve as potential biomarkers in early diagnosis and as therapeutic targets for SLE. © Copyright © 2020 Udhaya Kumar, Thirumal Kumar, Siva, George Priya Doss, Younes, Younes, Sidenna and Zayed.
About the journal
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
PublisherFrontiers Media S.A.