Plant essential oil nanoemulsions can be formulated using low- and high-energy methods. These nanometric delivery systems can be incorporated into food and beverage systems to increase the antimicrobial activity, reducing the amount of the antimicrobial compound required and, therefore, minimizing the impact on the quality of the final product. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems, fabricated by ultrasonication or high-pressure homogenization with food grade ingredients, are able to protect the essential oil components. Nanoemulsion requires a lower concentration of oil and surfactant compared with conventional emulsion formulation. The emulsion penetrates into the membrane of the bacterial cell wall and activates passive transport through the cell membrane, thus increasing antimicrobial activity. © 2016 by Elsevier, Inc.. All rights reserved.