Foodborne diseases impose a high public health burden globally. The majority of bacterial infections lead to pandemics. Dominant pathogens produce one or more toxins targeting signal transduction of the host, which finally bring about pathophysiological changes and lead to disease(s). Some inhibit protein synthesis, some are neurotoxic, and some target different cellular functions. Evolution of all these toxin moieties enables pathogen(s) to emerge and target the host. Targets and modes of action are mostly known to develop prophylaxis; however, the corresponding defensive actions in a host are not yet well understood. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.