ABSTRACT The genetic diversity and sharing of the mother-child associated microbiota remain largely unexplored. This severely limits our functional understanding of gut microbiota transmission patterns. The aim of our work was therefore to use a novel reduced metagenome sequencing in combination with shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine both the metagenome genetic diversity and the mother-to-child sharing of the microbiota. For a cohort of 17 mother-child pairs we found an increase of the collective metagenome size from about 100 Mbp for 4-day-old children to about 500 Mbp for mothers. The 4-day-old children shared 7% of the metagenome sequences with the mothers, while the metagenome sequence sharing was more than 30% among the mothers. We found 15 genomes shared across more than 50% of the mothers, of which 10 belonged to Clostridia . Only Bacteroides showed a direct mother-child association, with B. vulgatus being abundant in both 4-day-old children and mothers. In conclusion, our results support a common pool of gut bacteria that are transmitted from adults to infants, with most of the bacteria being transmitted at a stage after delivery.