In the past several decades, various advances in medical sciences have improved the care of HIV-infected individuals globally. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ARV), the incidence of neurological opportunistic infections has been greatly reduced. However, the nonopportunistic condition like neurocognitive impairment is still prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. The studies from India conducted in late 1990s on neurological aspects of HIV have mostly concentrated on dementia or AIDS dementia complex. Over time, the neurocognitive consequences of HIV have gained the attention of Indian clinicians as they impair the quality of life, every day activities, employment, and adherence to the treatment. Despite the fact that the recent gains have increased the focus on the assessment of neurocognitive disorders associated with HIV, the data in India are meager. An attempt has been made in this chapter to analyze and present various central nervous system diseases associated with HIV-1 infection, prevalent in India, grounded on various hospital-based reports covering the country. © Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017.