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Lutein: A potential antibiofilm and antiquorum sensing molecule from green microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa
S.J. Sampathkumar, P. Srivastava, S. Ramachandran, K. Sivashanmugam,
Published in Academic Press
PMID: 31398531
Volume: 135
The increasing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa towards antimicrobial agents has been a major cause for the escalation of untreatable diabetic foot ulcer cases around the globe. This demands research towards alternative natural products that inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. The study focuses on enhancing as well as understanding the anti-biofilm property of lutein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa against MTCC strain of P. aeruginosa PAO1. C. pyrenoidosa was subjected to nutrient starvation (N−, S− and P−) and their growth, biomass, chlorophyll pigments and total carotenoids were estimated. Lutein extracted from nutrient starved C. pyrenoidosa were quantified using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and also used for quantification of biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and pyocyanin degradation. The results showed 20 μg/mL concentration of lutein showed maximum inhibition and degradation of biofilm formation, pyocyanin production, Cell Surface Hydrophobicity Extracellular Polymeric Substances, when compared to other concentrations. Azithromycin was used as a standard drug to compare the efficiency of lutein as a potential antibiofilm compound. Docking studies confirmed the interaction of lutein with the four proteins – LasI, LasR, RhlI and RhlR, involved in the quorum sensing mechanism during biofilm formation. Among them, RhlI protein was found to strongly interact and LasI exhibiting the least interaction with lutein. Gene expression analyses of las and rhl genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1 revealed a significant down regulation of both the genes in the cultures treated with different concentrations of lutein. Therefore, it can be understood that lutein is an effective antibiofilm agent and can be used in combination with generic drugs that are used for treating diseases such as diabetic foot ulcers, which are ineffective due to high biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa and other bacterial species. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd
About the journal
JournalMicrobial Pathogenesis
PublisherAcademic Press