Seafood poisoning in humans is caused by consumption of toxin-containing seafood that is contaminated with marine dinoflagellates. This has been a concern for many years. There are a number of dinoflagellate species that produce strong neurotoxins, which are often associated with the phenomenon called red tide. Outbreaks of red tide are caused by harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs are not a new phenomenon, with written references dating back to biblical times. The most common type of HAB is referred to as a red tide because the bloom discolors the water, making it appear red. Humans eating seafood from infested areas during dinoflagellate bloom can become poisoned. With respect to the contaminants of toxic dinoflagellates in seafood, there are two main types of poisoning in humans. The terms fish and shellfish are associated with these illnesses because the toxins are concentrated in fish and shellfish that ingest the harmful dinoflagellates. According to the species of toxigenic dinoflagel-lates the poisoning syndromes have been given the names paralytic (PSP), diarrhetic (DSP), neurotoxic (NSP), and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP). Another human illness, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is caused by the ciguatoxins produced by di-noflagellates that attach to surfaces in many coral reef communities [33.1]. Besides these well-known poisoning types, several new poisoning syndromes resulting from newly appearing dinoflagellate toxins, such as yessotoxin (YTX) and palytoxin (PTX), have been reported and characterized recently, and this has increased global public concerns regarding dinoflagellates associated with humans poisoning. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.