A large array of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens and origination of multidrug resistance in their gene provokes the need of developing new vectors or novel drug molecules for effective drug delivery and thus, better treatment of disease. The nanoparticle has emerged as a novel drug molecule in last decade and has been used in various industrial fields like cosmetics, healthcare, agricultural, pharmaceuticals due to their high optical, electronic, medicinal properties. Use of nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent remain in current studies with metal nanoparticles like silver, gold, copper, iron and metal oxide nanoparticles like zinc oxide, copper oxide, titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The high anti-bacterial activity of nanoparticles is due to their large surface area to volume ratio which allows binding of a large number of ligands on nanoparticle surface and hence, its complexation with receptors present on the bacterial surface. Green synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle (ZnO NP) and its anti-bacterial application has been particularly discussed in the review literature. The present study highlights differential nanoparticle attachment to gram + and gram - bacterial surface and different mechanism adopted by nanoparticle for bacterial control. Pharmacokinetics and applications of ZnO NP are also discussed briefly. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.