In the field of drug delivery, consistent efforts are under progress targeting upgraded human healthcare and improving current drug therapeutics. Most of the drugs introduced into the body by conventional methods, using oral tablets and intravenous injections, encounter problems including poor solubility, undesirable biodistribution, burst release kinetics, tissue damage during extravasation, cytotoxicity, and many more objectionable side effects. To overcome these limitations, advanced drug delivery systems (DDS) aim at maximum therapeutics efficiency, enhanced bioavailability, targeted drug release, extended drug release profile, minimum toxicity, and reduced dosage frequency to encourage patient compliance. Nanofiber scaffolds are the most modern and competent drug delivery carriers, revolutionizing the field of nanomedicines due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, increased loading efficiency, and enhanced permeation and retention effects. Nanofiber composites exploit the synergism of two or more materials to achieve desired therapeutic objective, e.g., targeted drug delivery, stimulus-sensitive drug release, dual drug release with independent release kinetics, adjustable control release, on-off switchable drug release, etc. In this chapter, we present different types of nanofiber composites fabricated in the context of drug delivery, with their distinctive implications. The applications of different nanocomposites in the fields of advanced pharmaceuticals, wound dressings, tissue engineering, and cancer therapeutics have also been demonstrated for their future prospects. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.