A number of bioactive components have been extracted from neem (. Azadirachta indica) essential oil, including azadirachtin, gedunin, isomargolonone, margolone, margolonone, nimbidin, nimbin, nimbolide, and salannin. These phytochemicals contribute to the various biological activities of neem essential oil, such as acaricidal, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimutagenic, antiprotozoan, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiviral, immunomodulatory, insect-repellent, and spermicidal properties. Neem essential oil has potential antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus; and four different food-spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Pseudomonas putida. Neem oil is reported to have considerably higher antibacterial activity than antibiotics such as tetracycline, ampicillin, and ciprofloxacin. Neem cake exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria spoiling the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system, thereby preserving the food system against microbial spoilage. © 2016 by Elsevier, Inc.. All rights reserved.