In order to meet the defined standards of sulfur emission, it is an inevitability to develop varied models based on indispensable concepts. Such models can only be created after having robust knowledge about the issue and setups involved in desulfurization. This review presents various criteria for Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and novel Non-HDS processes with comprehensive information of the catalysts and reactor set up data. In addition, radiation theory concepts and material on novel biocatalyst employed in the process of desulphurization are also elucidated. The recent advancements are in emerging stage, so making feasible improvements on the factors would support the petroleum processes to release a reduced amount of sulfur in the atmosphere. A concerted integrated approach will surely lead the way for a safer and rapid way for the production of zero-sulfur fuels. © 2019 Petroleum and Coal.