In this paper, we report a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein gene in rice. PPR, a characteristic repeat motif consisted of tandem 35 amino acids, has been found in various biological systems including plant. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene designated OsPPR1 consisted of an open reading frame of 2433 nucleotides encoding 810 amino acids that include 11 PPR motifs. Blast search result indicated that the gene did not align with any of the characterized PPR genes in plant. The OsPPR1 gene was found to contain a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal region, suggesting that the gene product targets to the chloroplast. Southern blot hybridization indicated that the OsPPR1 is the member of a gene family within the rice genome. Expression analysis and immunoblot analysis suggested that the OsPPR1 was accumulated mainly in rice leaf. Antisense transgenic strategy was used to suppress the expression of OsPPR1 and the resulted transgenic rice showed the typical phenotypes of chlorophyll-deficient mutants; albinism and lethality. Cytological observation using microscopy revealed that the antisense transgenic plant contained a significant defect in the chloroplast development. Taken together, the results suggest that the OsPPR1 is a nuclear gene of rice, encoding the PPR protein that might play a role in the chloroplast biogenesis. This is the first report on the PPR protein required for the chloroplast biogenesis in rice. © Springer 2005.