Microbial fuel cells are extended to various applications such as treatment of wastewater and production of biobased products apart from bioenergy under the umbrella “microbial electrochemical technologies (METs)". The process is coined as bioelectrochemical treatment (BET) if the reducing equivalents generated by substrate degradation are used for the treatment of both complex organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater rather than electricity. Bioelectrochemical treatment could be an innovative technology to reduce the complexity of the pollutants and also has the potential to overcome the limiting factors of conventional treatment processes. This chapter provides an insightful view of BET for wastewater remediation and discusses about the mechanism involved in treating the pollutant through bacteria respiration in the presence of solid electrodes via direct and indirect oxidations. The key components that influence the treatment efficiency along with the feasible operating conditions have been discussed. This chapter also confers the advantage of BET in treating the inorganic pollutants that are less feasible through conventional anaerobic biological processes. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.