Carotenoids, the naturally occurring organic pigments are isoprenoids attributed with many health promoting and aesthetic values. Several epidemiological studies have projected its role in the prevention of onset of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers due to its anti-oxidant activity. Besides, carotenoids such as beta carotene acts as Vitamin A precursor that aids in the prevention of Vitamin A deficiency. Animals are unable to synthesise carotenoids de novo. Thus they depend on dietary sources to procure these health benefactors. The rapid increase in the population and their ever increasing demand of food resources that holds survival on this planet is a major challenge faced at present as land resources dedicated to agriculture is not at par with the requirements of the society. Biotechnology tools play a central position in this scenario to present transgenic plants with enhanced yield and nutritional quality. In this context, genetic engineering approaches towards the enhancement of carotenoids in crop plants will open new avenues in addressing food security problems.