Online social media and social networking services experience a drastic development in the present scenario. Contents generated by hundreds of millions of users are used for communication in general. Users mark their opinion and review in various applications such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Weibo, Flicker, LinkedIn, Online-e commerce sites, Microblogging sites, etc. User generated text is spread rapidly on the web, and it has become tedious to analyze the opinionated text in order to arrive at a decision. Sentiment analysis, a sub-category of text mining is the major active research domain in current era due to greater quantity of opinionated text present in the Internet. Semantic detection is the sub-class in the sentiment analysis which is used for measuring the sentiment orientation in any text. Opinionated text is used for analyzing and making the decision simple. This interdisciplinary field draws various techniques from data mining, machine learning, natural language processing, lexicon based and hybrid based approaches. This paper provides a broad perspective with the highlight of the current state-of art techniques emphasizing the various research challenges and gaps present. The performance metrics in terms of detection rate, precision, recall, f-measure/score, average mean, auto-Pearson correlation, cosine similarity and ratio of time on various algorithms is discussed in detail. An analysis of the text mining approaches in different domains is presented.