Concrete is the major utility material in modern construction industry; the stone-based masonry was almost completely replaced with concrete and concrete-based products. The major constituent of concrete is cement. There are lots of environmental issues in the concrete ranging from pollution in cement manufacturing to carbon emission in concrete and high usage of water for both manufacturing and curing purposes. There were lots of researches made in finding an alternative binding material in concrete instead of cement with high advantage toward environment. Under these researches, geopolymer is major breakthrough reducing all the above-said adverse environmental effects; initially metakaoline and low-calcium flyash were used in the production of geopolymer concrete (GPC), but later the environmental hazardous by-products such as fly ash from thermal power plants, biomedical waste incinerated ash, nondegradable and toxic solid waste incinerated ash, etc. were solidified using polymeric reaction and were proved to be effective in manufacturing construction materials. This further reduces the landfill process followed to dispose these toxic by-products. This chapter discusses in detail about physicochemical analysis of these by-product-based polymer materials used in construction industry, and also sheds lights on current research trends in GPC its merits and demerits and future of GPC in construction industry. © 2017 Scrivener Publishing LLC.