Plants are the major sources of different types of phytochemicals with numerous biomedical applications. Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field and plays an important role in most of the advanced science, medicine, and technology areas. This chapter summarizes the plant sources used for nanoparticle synthesis, characterization, and their applications. Plant parts such as leaves, fruits, seeds, stems, flowers, roots, barks, and fruit peels are involved in the synthesis of various types of nanoparticles. The low cost and higheco-friendly-natured plants are very advanced and beneficial to human applications. Nanoparticles such as silver from silver nitrate, gold from gold chloride, zinc oxide from zinc nitrate and zinc acetate, cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide from cadmium sulfate and zinc sulfate, etc. were synthesized with the help of different types of plants and their different parts are reported in this chapter. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.