The objective of the paper is to portray New Historicism as a literary theory to explain political traditions and power structures in the scientific novel The Island of Dr. Moreau by H.G. Wells, a leading American novelist who is today best known as "The Father of Science Fiction". The protagonist Montgomery stands as a positive symbol of exploration and realization, whereas, Dr. Moreau creates human-like beings from genetic manipulation of animals and treats them in a really harsh and cruel manner by imposing strict rules and regulations. The present paper explores H.G Wells' personal experiences in Victorian Age, and it also analyses how his meeting with Hitler and Joseph Stalin in Soviet Russia has a great influence on this work. The paper also gives vivid details of political traditions and power structures of the human-like beings created by Moreau. © Serials Publications.