Purpose of Review: To conduct a thorough appraisal of recent and inventive advances in the field of bone tissue engineering using biomaterials, cell-based research, along with the incorporation of biomimetic properties using surface modification of scaffolds. Recent Findings: This paper will provide an overview on different biomaterials and emerging techniques involved in the fabrication of scaffolds, brief description of signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, and the effect of surface modification on the fate of progenitor cells. Summary: The current strategies used for regenerative medicine like cell therapy, gene transfer, and tissue engineering have opened numerous therapeutic avenues for the treatment of various disabling orthopedic disorders. Precise strategy utilized for the reconstruction, restoration, or repair of the bone-related tissues exploits cells, biomaterials, morphogenetic signals, and appropriate mechanical environment to provide the basic constituents required for creating new tissue. Combining all the above strategies in clinical trials would pave the way for successful “bench to bedside” transformation in bone healing. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.