Beta titanium (β-Ti) alloys have been a subject area of intense interest since 1980s. By virtue of their unique properties, β-Ti alloys very well compliment the alpha and alpha + beta alloys. Heat treatment of β-Ti alloys is the crux to their technology and application. Over the last two decades, a number of researches have been carried out on issues related to heat treatment of these alloys—sub-transus solution treatment, duplex aging and heating rate to aging temperature. Improved understanding resulting from these studies has enabled designing optimum heat treatments to achieve refined microstructures free from deleterious features with improved mechanical properties under static and dynamic loading conditions. The purpose of this overview is to take stock of progress made in recent years in understanding the heat treatment of β-Ti alloys for a better commercial exploitation. © 2016, The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM.