Bean or Pod of Vanilla Orchid is an origin for the isolation of vanillin. It can be synthesized via chemical and biological methods. Due to the potency and its application vanillin has been used in various industries such as beverages, perfumes, food, and pharmaceuticals. Natural source (vanillin) contains reactive functional groups (-CHO), which is useful to provide additional function from the target material. Also based on the environmental concerns, policies and financial incentives, various material science sectors have moved towards the use of such natural source in their product. In this chapter, we will describe the preparation and application of vanillin-derived polymers and composites. © 2017 Scrivener Publishing LLC.