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Sustainable hydrogen production for the greener environment by quantum dots-based efficient photocatalysts: A review
Rao V.N, Reddy N.L, Kumari M.M, , Ravi P, , Neppolian B, Reddy K.R, Shetti N.P, Show More
Published in Elsevier BV
Volume: 248
Nano-size photocatalysts exhibit multifunctional properties that opened the door for improved efficiency in energy, environment, and health care applications. Among the diversity of catalyst Quantum dots are a class of nanomaterials having a particle size between 2 and 10 nm, showing unique optoelectrical properties that are limited to some of the metal, metal oxide, metal chalcogenides, and carbon-based nanostructures. These unique characteristics arise from either pristine or binary/ternary composites where noble metal/metal oxide/metal chalcogenide/carbon quantum dots are anchored on the surface of semiconductor photocatalyst. It emphasized that properties, as well as performance of photocatalytic materials, are greatly influenced by the choice of synthesis methods and experimental conditions. Among the chemical methods, photo-deposition, precipitation, and chemical reduction, are the three most influential synthesis approaches. Further, two types of quantum dots namely metal based and carbon-based materials have been highlighted. Based on the optical, electrical and surface properties, quantum dots based photocatalysts have been divided into three categories namely (a) photocatalyst (b) co-catalyst and (c) photo-sensitizer. They showed enhanced photocatalytic performance for hydrogen production under visible/UV-visible light irradiation. Often, pristine metal chalcogenides as well as metal/metal oxide/carbon quantum dots attached to a semiconductor particle exhibit enhanced the photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production through absorption of visible light. Alternatively, noble metal quantum dots, which provide plenty of defects/active sites facilitate continuous hydrogen production. For instance, production of hydrogen in the presence of sacrificial agents using metal chalcogenides, metal oxides, and coinage metals based catalysts such as CdS/MoS2 (99,000 μmol h-1g-1) TiO2-Ni(OH)2 (47,195 μmol h-1g-1) and Cu/Ag-TiO2 nanotubes (56,167 μmol h-1g-1) have been reported. Among the carbon-based nanostructures, graphitic C3N4 and carbon quantum dots composites displayed enhanced hydrogen gas (116.1 μmol h-1) production via overall water splitting. This review accounts recent findings on various chemical approaches used for quantum dots synthesis and their improved materials properties leading to enhanced hydrogen production particularly under visible light irradiation. Finally, the avenue to improve quantum efficiency further is proposed.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetJournal of Environmental Management
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier BV
Open Access0