The present article deals with the viscoelastic modeling and dynamic responses of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CNTs-CFRP) composite spherical shell panels where CNTs are reinforced in the polymer matrix phase. The Mori–Tanaka micromechanics in conjunction with weak interface theory has been developed for the mathematical formulations of the viscoelastic modeling of CNTs-based polymer matrix phase. Further, the strength of material method has been employed to formulate the viscoelastic material behavior of the homogenized hybrid CNTs-CFRP composite materials. An eight-noded shell element with five degrees of freedom per node has been formulated to study the vibration damping characteristics of spherical shell structures made by CNTs-CFRP composite materials. Frequency- and temperature-dependent material properties of such hybrid composite materials have been obtained and analyzed. Impulse and frequency responses of such structures have been performed to study the effects of various important parameters on the material properties and such dynamic responses. Obtained results demonstrate that quick vibration mitigation may be possible using such CNTs-based proposed composite materials. © 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria.