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Zinc Stabilized Azo-anion Radical in Dehydrogenative Synthesis of N-Heterocycles. An Exclusively Ligand Centered Redox Controlled Approach
Siuli Das, Rakesh Mondal, , Amit Guin Kumar, Abhishek Das, Nanda Paul D.
Published in
Volume: 11
Issue: 12
Pages: 7498 - 7512
Herein we report an exclusively ligand-centered redox controlled approach for the dehydrogenation of a variety of N-heterocycles using a Zn(II)-stabilized azo-anion radical complex as the catalyst. A simple, easy-to-prepare and bench-stable Zn(II)-complex (1b) featuring the tridentate arylazo pincer, 2-((4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline, in the presence of zinc-dust, undergoes reduction to form the azo-anion radical species [1b]- which efficiently dehydrogenates various saturated N-heterocycles such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methylquinoline, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline, indoline, 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazole, 2,3-dihydro-2-phenylquinazolin-4(1H)-one and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-phenylquinazolines, among others, under air. The catalyst has further been found to be compatible with the cascade synthesis of these N-heterocycles via dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols with other suitable coupling partners under air. Mechanistic investigation reveals that the dehydrogenation reactions proceed via a one-electron hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) pathway where the zinc-stabilized azo-anion radical ligand abstracts the hydrogen atom from the organic substrate(s) and the whole catalytic cycle proceeds via the exclusive involvement of the ligand-centered redox events where the zinc acts only as the template.
About the journal
JournalACS Catalysis