Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most dangerous pollutants in urban environments, and studies have linked it to many adverse health effects. Resuspended road dust makes up a large portion of PM. Therefore, monitoring and estimating the contribution of resuspended dust to PM is vital. In this study, emission rates of fine and coarse PM from different roads of Vellore City in Tamil Nadu, India, is estimated using silt loading protocol adapted by U.S. EPA. Silt load samples are collected from 8 different roads in the study region. The emission rates estimated using silt loading and fleet weight are then used to model the dispersion of PM throughout the study region using AERMOD. Hotspots of high PM concentration are identified at various locations frequented by commuters in the study region. Areas around educational institutions and hospitals in the region show highly elevated levels of PM. This study illustrates that resuspension of road dust can contribute significantly to PM in urban centers. Fine PM concentration exceeding 500 μg/m3 raises concerns about the health of commuters in the study region. This justifies the need for more regulations aiming at reducing the contribution of PM from resuspended road dust to overall urban PM. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.