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Health benefits of achieving fine particulate matter standards in India – A nationwide assessment
N. Manojkumar,
Published in Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 33127123
Volume: 763
Background: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the leading risk factors in India. The elevated levels of PM2.5 exposure concentration in India are related to higher premature mortality. However, health benefits or avoidable premature mortality by reducing PM2.5 concentration is uncertain. Objectives: Here we simulated the health benefits by assuming the achievement of 1) National Ambient Air Quality Standards of India (PM2.5 annual average = 40 μg m−3), 2) National Clean Air Programme policy (30% reduction) and 3) World Health Organization standard (10 μg m−3). Methodology: Using Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program – Community Edition (BenMAP-CE), the health benefits are estimated at national, state and district levels for various health endpoints viz., all-cause, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and stroke. PM2.5 data, concentration-response coefficient, population, and baseline incidence rate are specified as input data in BenMAP–CE. Results: At the national level, all-cause health benefits in three simulations range from 0.79 to 2.1 million cases during 2019. Similarly, IHD, COPD, lung cancer, and stroke related health benefits are in the range of 0.28–0.68, 0.17–0.39, 0.01–0.03, and 0.14–0.34 million cases, respectively. State-level estimates showed that Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal are having maximum health benefits whereas north-eastern states are found with lowest estimates. Districts such as Allahabad, Lucknow, Muzaffarpur, Patna, and Sultanpur are estimated to have highest health benefits. States and districts with higher PM2.5 concentration and exposed population are found with maximum health benefits. Among the three simulations, achievement of the World Health Organization standard resulted in highest estimates. Further, the limitations and sensitivity of input parameters used in this study are discussed in detail. Conclusion: Study results highlighted the need for state and district-specific air quality management measures to increase PM2.5 related health benefits. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetScience of the Total Environment
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier B.V.