Background: Particulate matter (PM) is one among the crucial air pollutants and has the potential to cause a wide range of health effects. Indian cities ranked top places in the World Health Organization list of most polluted cities by PM. Objectives: Present study aims to assess the trends, short- and long-term health effects of PM in major Indian cities. Methods: PM-induced hospital admissions and mortality are quantified using AirQ+ software. Results: Annual PM concentration in most of the cities is higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of India. Trend analysis showed peak PM concentration during post-monsoon and winter seasons. The respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions in the male (female) population are estimated to be 31,307 (28,009) and 5460 (4882) cases, respectively. PM2.5 has accounted for a total of 1,27,014 deaths in 2017. Conclusion: Cities with high PM concentration and exposed population are more susceptible to mortality and hospital admissions. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.