Application of nanotechnology in the agro-food sector is one of the fastest growing fields in nano-research. The increase in number of the publications, patents and intellectual property rights in the field of nano-agri-food and recent research trends in food processing, packaging, nutraceutical delivery, quality control and functional food is by itself an evidence of the above statement. Government organizations, scientists, inventors as well as industries are coming up with new techniques, protocols and products that have a direct application of nanotechnology in agriculture and food products.This review provides a detailed overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture, and food science & technology. Additionally, a brief idea about the classification of nanomaterials, synthesis and characterization techniques is discussed. Some exciting thoughts are also discussed on nanotechnological applications in agricultural practices including nano-agri for enhanced productivity, agricultural water quality management (WQM), product processing, storage and quality control with nano-sensors. The risk assessment and safety concerns with respect to nano agro-food research have also been highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.