Herein, we report a new strategy based on jacalin functionalization to diminish the impact of biological fluids in the antibacterial applications of nanoparticles (NPs). Precoating pectin-capped copper sulfide NPs (pCuS) with bovine serum albumin produced a protein corona, which affects the antibacterial activity of pCuS. It was found that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increases fourfold because of the formation of the protein corona. Interestingly, the pCuS functionalized with jacalin enhance the targeting capabilities through bacterial cell surface glycan recognition with no interference from the protein corona. The MIC of pCuS decreases 16-fold on functionalization with jacalin. Mechanistic studies indicated that the pCuS functionalized with jacalin impede the protein corona interference and induce bacterial cell death by impairing the GSH/reactive oxygen species balance and disrupting the bacteria cell membrane. As a proof of concept, we used a bacteria-infected zebrafish animal model to demonstrate the interference of biological fluids in the antibacterial activity of NPs. Infected zebrafish treated with 1× MIC of pCuS failed to recover from the infection, but 4× MIC rescues the fish. The requirement of a high dose of NPs to treat the infection confirms the interference of biological fluids in nanotherapeutic applications. At the same time, the jacalin-pCuS complex rescues the infected fish at 16-fold lesser MIC. The results obtained from this study suggest that jacalin-mediated NP targeting may have broad implications in the development of future nanomedicine. Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society.