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External and internal responses of cervical disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: A finite element modeling study
Y. Purushothaman, N. Yoganandan, , H. Choi, J. Baisden
Published in Elsevier Ltd
PMID: 32321632
Volume: 106
Surgical treatment for spinal disorders, such as cervical disc herniation and spondylosis, includes the removal of the intervertebral disc and replacement of biological or artificial materials. In the former case, bone graft is used to fill the space, and this conventional procedure is termed anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The latter surgery is termed as artificial disc replacement ADR) or cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Surgeries are most commonly performed at one or two levels. The present study was designed to determine the external (range of motion, ROM) and internal (anterior and posterior load sharing) responses of the spines with one-level and two-level surgeries in both models (ACDF and CDA) using a previously validated finite element model (FEM) of the subaxial cervical spinal column. The FEM simulated the vertebra (cancellous core and cortical shell of the body, posterior elements – laminae, pedicles and spinous processes), discs (anulus fibers, ground substance, and nucleus pulposus), anterior and posterior ligaments of the disc and facet joints, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments. Appropriate material properties were assigned to the spinal components. The United States Food Drug Administration-approved Mobi-C was used for the CDA option. The FEM was exercised under pure flexion and extension moment loading of 2 Nm in the intact state. The overall ROM of the column was obtained. The hybrid loading protocol applied moments that matched the ROM in the intact spine for both one-level (C5–C6) and two-level (C5–C7) ACDF and CDA surgeries. ROM at the level(s) of surgery, termed the index level was obtained. These data along with anterior column load (ACL) and posterior column load (PCL) sharing were obtained for all surgical options at superior and inferior segments (termed adjacent segment outputs). Results for both one-level and two-level surgeries showed that ACDFs decreases ROM at the index level, while CDAs increase motions compared to the intact normal spine. The ROM, ACL, and PCL increased at both adjacent levels for the ACDF while CDA showed a decrease. Although two-level surgeries resulted in increased these biomechanical variables, greater changes to adjacent segment biomechanics in ACDF may accelerate adjacent segment disease. Decreased ROM and lower load sharing in CDAs may limit adjacent segment effects such as accelerated degeneration. Their increased posterior load sharing, however, may need additional attention for patients with suspected facet joint disease. © 2020
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier Ltd