The aim of the present study was to assess the larvicidal property of marine actinobacterial compound 5-(2,4-dimethylbenzyl) pyrrolidin-2-one (DMBPO) extracted and isolated from Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. tested against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The isolate bacteria was taxonomically characterized, identified, and designated as Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. The crude extract was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform:methanol. The isolated pure compound was analyzed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent system and confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The structure of the purified compound was established from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The chemical shift assignments obtained for the aliphatic compound from 1H-NMR corresponding to the molecular formula C 13H17NO. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of compound which was identified as DMBPO. In the present study, Streptomyces VITSVK5 sp. crude extract and different fractions were tested against the larvae of parasites at the concentration of 1,000 ppm. Those fractions showing 100% mortality in 24 h alone was selected for further column chromatographic separation. The purified compound, C13H 17NO, was tested in the concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 ppm and observed the percent larval mortality of 100, 70, 64, 40, and 28 against R. microplus; 100, 79, 63, 36, and 22 against A. stephensi; and 100, 84, 67, 42, and 27 against C. tritaeniorhynchus, respectively. The crude extract showed parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 1,000 ppm, and parasite mortality was observed against the larvae of R. microplus (LC50 = 210.39 ppm, r 2 = 0.873); A. stephensi (LC50 = 169.38 ppm, r 2 = 0.840); and C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 198.75 ppm, r 2 = 0.887). The maximum efficacy was observed in purified marine actinobacterial compound DMBPO with LC50 and r 2 values against the larvae of R. microplus (84.31 ppm, 0.889); A. stephensi (88.97 ppm, 0.817), and C. tritaeniorhynchus (74.95 ppm, 0.781), respectively. The control (distilled water) showed nil mortality in the concurrent assay. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.