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Neck Vertebral Level-specific Forces and Moments under G-xAccelerative Loading
Y. Purushothaman, J. Humm, , N. Yoganandan
Published in Oxford University Press
PMID: 33499473
Volume: 186
Pages: 625 - 631
Introduction: It is important to determine the local forces and moments across the entire cervical spine as dysfunctions such as spondylosis and acceleration-induced injuries are focused on specific levels/segments. The aims of the study were to determine the axial and shear forces and moments at each level under G-x accelerative loading for female and male spines. Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model of the male head-cervical spinal column was developed. G-x impact acceleration was applied using experimental data from whole body human cadaver tests. It was validated with experimental head kinematics. The model was converted to a female model, and the same input was applied. Segmental axial and shear forces and moments were obtained at all levels from C2 to T1 in male and female spines. Results: The time of occurrence of peak axial forces in male and female spines ranged from 37 to 41 ms and 31 to 35 ms. The peak times for the shear forces in male and female spines ranged from 65 to 86 ms and 58 to 78 ms. The peak times for the bending moment ranged from 79 to 91 ms for male and 75 to 83 ms for female spines. Other data are given. Conclusions: All metrics reached their peaks earlier in female than male spines, representing a quicker loading in the female spine. Peak magnitudes were also lower in the female spines. Moments and axial forces varied differently compared to the shear forces in the female spine, suggesting that intersegmental loads vary nonuniformly. Effects of head inertia contributed to the greatest increase in axial force under this impact acceleration vector. Because female spines have a lower biomechanical tolerance to injury, female spines may be more vulnerable to injury under this load vector. © 2021 The Association of Military Surgeons of the United States.
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PublisherData powered by TypesetOxford University Press